It was reported in the recent news that child injuries have substantially come down after the booster seat law came up in New York. Requiring the children to be strapped to the car seats, the law helped reducing the rate of injuries quite substantially.
Systems Followed in US
Systems followed in United States today is as follows.
• Most of the states require that the children those have outgrown the traditional car seats; must use the booster.
• Such booster will raise the child high enough so that the car seatbelts are positioned properly.
• Shoulder straps of the booster seat are placed across the shoulder and not across the neck.
• Lap belt of the booster seat is placed across the hips.
Benefits of Booster Seats
Research and studies have shown that seats protect the children against crashes. However, the recent research that has been reported in the journal Pediatrics is the first that would compare injury rates that occurred before and after the use of seats. Drop rate is as high as 18% making a huge difference among the two periods preceding and following the implementation of the laws.
Features of the New Rule
• Beginning with March 2005, New York State has now made it mandatory for the children in the age group of 4-6 to ride in car seat.
• Whether they are riding in car booster at the front end or rear end of the car; the use of such seats is mandatory.
• A comparison of injuries suffered by children in the said age group two years before implementation of the rules and two years after indicated that there was marked reductions in the rate of injuries.
• Injuries came down from 29 to 25 within the said time span of around 3-4 years.
Law Deserves Commendations
According to the United States Government State Department, the law deserves commendation. Just before the law was put in place, nearly 29% of the children who were strapped to booster seats suffered from injuries due to crash. Another important point to note is that no such reduction in the rate of injuries in the rank of children below the age of 4 years was noticed. For such children the New York booster seat law was not applicable.
Intelligence led policing takes advantage of the new data mining technologies available and marries those technologies to the street knowledge that had been gathered in the past by the cop walking the beat. Rather than relevant information being limited to a few, data mining techniques allow critical information to be collected from your whole jurisdiction and analyzed from a wide variety of perspectives to help you achieve your specific objectives. The benefit of this accumulation and concentration of data is efficiency on multiple levels.
Intelligence led policing takes over the sheer magnitude of sifting through tens of thousands of individual pieces of data relating to criminal activity. By automating data collection and analysis, less personnel are needed to do the “grunt” work of connecting the dots. All relevant data that has been entered into the system is available for your inspection, no files left in a filing cabinet in the basement somewhere. Data can be rapidly analyzed from different scenarios and perspectives. Data is presented in visual format which allows you to see patterns more easily in large collections of data. Moreover, this real-time data can be sent directly to mobile phones for in-car computers to alert officers of potential threats or impending dangers in specific geographic areas. Essentially, this predictive policing technology is at work to give decision-makers the ability to see where the most needed resources are in a community and to apply the necessary officers to that region.
You save money and make best use of resources with intelligence led policing because you can pinpoint more specifically the areas that need increased attention. Another best use of resources is that your database contains profiles of who does what types of crimes, allowing you to focus your initial investigations on the most likely suspects. Detecting crime trends earlier allows you to address them sooner and reduce the adverse impacts they have on your community. Being able to look at all the components of crime, such as time of day, weather, location and type of crime, allows you correlate patterns of activity and anticipate possible future combination of those factors to anticipate criminal activity. What if you could sift through tips looking for patterns? Maybe a crime has twelve different vehicles described by various tips, but looking at all the tips, you could more easily and quickly see what the predominant vehicle description was, with a higher probability of being correct.
Partnering with a business intelligence expert gives you access to consultants trained to work holistically, instead of using a “one size fits all” approach, on a law enforcement solution that is right for your department. Many law enforcement agencies, especially the large ones, have greatly benefited their communities and their entire department by using business intelligence tools to reduce costs and increase neighborhood and officer safety.
The “Romeo and Juliet law” was enacted in Florida in 2007 by Florida Statute 943.04354 after the Shakespeare play about teenage lovers. The law was enacted because of concerns about young people in high school that were subjected to having to register as sexual offenders because they participated in a consensual sexual relationship with others of a similar age. The Florida legislature designed this law in order to separate sexual offenders who really pose a threat to children from high school teens who, with peers, had consensual sex.
This Florida law also gives people who had consensual sex when they were, at the time, teens or young adults to petition the court to relieve them of the requirement of having to register as a sex offender and or a sexual predator. The Tampa Bay Times recently reported that some 250 people have been given relief under this statute. For a person to obtain relief, they have to file a petition where they will show that by removing the requirement to register, will not go against the federal law and that the person has met the following requirements:
1 – The offence happened either on or after July 1, 2007.
2 – Prove that the only reason the person has to register as a sexual predator or offender is because of the offence at issue.
3 – The person is less than four years older than the victim. The courts are very strict about this requirement and have denied relief to persons who were over four years older than the victim, even if it was only a matter of weeks.
4 – The victim was between 14 and 17 years of age when the crime was committed.
5 – Because of a consensual sex act, the person was adjudicated delinquent or was convicted.
Once the person files a petition, a hearing is then held where the state attorney will be required to place a public notice regarding the petition at least 21 days prior to the hearing. It is the right of the state attorney to argue the petition and try to get it denied by presenting evidence in opposition. The statute says the court has to rule on the petition, and as long as the court determines the person in question has met the statutory criteria and that removing the requirement to register will not conflict with federal law, “it may grant the petition.” It is at the courts discretion as to whether they will grant or deny the petition. Additionally, should the court deny the petition, the person is no longer allowed to petition further for removal of the requirement to register.
If the petition is granted, the person is required to provide the Department of Law Enforcement with a certified copy of the court order to remove the registration requirement. At that point, the requirement to register will not apply, and all information in regards to the person in the public registry of sexual predators and sex offenders must be removed by the department. Nevertheless, access will still be available about the person’s criminal record or history as a matter of public record. Even though it is not required for these petitions that are filed under this statute be filed by lawyers, it may be in the best interest of the person to have the representation of an experienced criminal defense attorney.
The new century has started with a milestone in the development and technology. With the increased popularity of internet functions, cyber crime and theft have emerged as a new propaganda. Apart from online crimes, the computer technology has enabled criminals to break the law and order force with the help of sophisticated instruments. Thus, there had to be the inclusion of computer and technology in the law and order force. Now, developed countries like UK, USA, Germany, France, China, etc. use the scientific instruments such as CCTV cameras to detect the criminal forces. This has become possible only with the introduction of computers. Computers surround all the spheres of a human’s life.
Virtual reality has been a mile stone in the law enforcement. Virtual reality is like a 4D film in which you feel almost as near to the original scene that has happened. This helps during the case solving in a court where the witness tells the scene of the crime in as much detail as he saw it and it is being projected on the screen to match the original scenario that has happened.
Other important achievement that has been made is ‘on site’. This term explains that the police officers and investigators have different tablet PCs or note books in their squad cars which could detect the people, etc. they have databases and other software through which they could carry the interviews and thoughts of people about the crime and send immediate reports to the head office or any law and enforcement controlling official when the scene of the crime is still fresh. Mobile electronics have also proves to be very use full because they can catalog, transfer or copy the evidence at the crime scene and can be managed and processed immediately after it reaches the head department of police station. Other technology like crime scene detectors are able to copy or identify the finger prints at the moment thus enabling the other officers to move fast in the matter and help the police gain full access to the criminals.
Improved telecommunication have allowed reliable and fast mode of communication between different departments of law and order. There can be sending and receiving of the encrypted messages so that no body except then the actual receiver can read the message. Digital radio frequencies are being used by the police department so that there can be easy communication even during the peak hours or when the signals are jammed because of the crime.
LPRT and DNA technologies have also contributed a great deal to the crime detection. LPRT stands for license plate reader technology. This technology uses OCR (optical character recognition) which captures the images. This gives the opportunity to the police officers to track the cars or other vehicles that were present at the crime scene. The DNA technology combines DNA and computer technology to combat violent crime. The DNA that is collected at the crime scene is tested against the output of DNA given by the computers. This helps in the tracking of the actual criminals.
All these factors have contributed to the betterment and enhance of the law and detection of criminal activities to discourage the criminals from these activities and warn them in the future so that the country can remain stable entirely.